This paper examines institutional and regulatory aspects of sustainable transport from a cross-national perspective. While institutions appear to play an important role in the economic success of many countries, it is not so clear that they also support sustainable development. A number of examples of the role of institutions in transport are discussed. Particular attention is focused among others on the themes of institutions and technological change, institutions and the organization of production, and territorial aspects of institutions. Regulatory trends are also reviewed including devolution patterns and the growing importance of supra-national organizations. © 2004 Taylor & Francis Ltd.