Integrating leadership: The Leadership Circumplex

M. Redeker, R.E. de Vries, D. Rouckhout, P. Vermeren, F. de Fruyt

    Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


    The present study aims to integrate leadership conceptualizations into one overarching model, using a "leadership circumplex". Two studies describe the construction and examine the psychometric characteristics of an operationalization of the leadership circumplex, the Circumplex Leadership Scan (CLS). Results showed that the CLS complies with the criteria of a true circumplex. Furthermore, scales, representing leadership styles, showed reasonable to high reliability. A third study confirmed the stability of the CLS structure and additionally explored the circumplex structure of subordinates' ratings of their leaders, which were found to have the same underlying circumplex structure. A fourth study was conducted to assess the convergent validity with other leadership styles from the existing leadership literature, the predictive validity of the styles, as well as the test-retest reliability. A fifth study confirmed the predictive validity results observed in Study 4 using different-source ratings of leadership outcomes. Finally, a sixth study explored the possibility of creating a short version of the CLS. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)435-455
    JournalEuropean Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 2014


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