Interactions between cyclists and automated vehicles: Results of a photo experiment *

Marjan P. Hagenzieker*, Sander van der Kint, Luuk Vissers, Ingrid N.L.G. van Schagen, Jonathan de Bruin, Paul van Gent, Jacques J.F. Commandeur

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Cyclists may have incorrect expectations of the behaviour of automated vehicles in interactions with them, which could bring extra risks in traffic. This study investigated whether expectations and behavioural intentions of cyclists when interacting with automated cars differed from those with manually driven cars. A photo experiment was conducted with 35 participants who judged bicycle–car interactions from the perspective of the cyclist. Thirty photos were presented. An experimental design was used with between-subjects factor instruction (two levels: positive, neutral), and two within-subjects factors: car type (three levels: roof name plate, sticker–these two external features indicated automated cars; and traditional car), and series (two levels: first, second). Participants were asked how sure they were to be noticed by the car shown in the photos, whether the car would stop, and how they would behave themselves. A subset of nine participants was equipped with an eye-tracker. Findings generally point to cautious dispositions towards automated cars: participants were not more confident to be noticed when interacting with both types of automated cars than with manually driven cars. Participants were more confident that automated cars would stop for them during the second series and looked significantly longer at automated cars during the first.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)94-115
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Transportation Safety and Security
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • automated driving
  • autonomous vehicles
  • cyclists
  • expectations
  • external features
  • interaction
  • road safety
  • road user behaviour


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