Background: Decision makers need to know whether health state values, an important component of summary measures of health, are valid for their target population. A key outcome is the individuals' valuation of their current health. This experience-based perspective is increasingly used to derive health state values. This study is the first to compare such experience-based valuations at the population level across countries. Methods: We examined the relationship between respondents' self-rated health as measured by the EQ-VAS, and the different dimensions and levels of the EQ-5D-3 L. The dataset included almost 32,000 survey respondents from 15 countries. We estimated generalized linear models with logit link function, including country-specific models and pooled-data models with country effects. Results: The results showed significant and meaningful differences in the valuation of health states and individual health dimensions between countries, even though similarities were present too. Between countries, coefficients correlated positively for the values of mobility, self-care and usual activities, but not for the values of pain and anxiety, thus underlining structural differences. Conclusions: The findings indicate that, ideally, population-specific experience-based value sets are developed and used for the calculation of health outcomes. Otherwise, sensitivity analyses are needed. Furthermore, transferring the results of foreign studies into the national context should be performed with caution. We recommend future studies to investigate the causes of differences in experience-based health state values through a single international study possibly complemented with qualitative research on the determinants of valuation.