Introduction: Triangulation and the Square Root Law

G.W. Marks

Research output: Contribution to JournalEditorialAcademicpeer-review


This special issue of Electoral Studies evaluates the validity of expert, manifesto, and survey data on the positioning of national political parties. My purpose in this introduction is to examine the logic and limits of triangulation. In doing so, I make explicit the most important lesson of this special issue: improving the validity demands that one take full advantage of the information that is available. Even if observation is inherently biased, one can improve accuracy by comparing the observations that are biased in different ways.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalElectoral Studies
Issue number1
Early online date25 Jul 2006
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2007


Dive into the research topics of 'Introduction: Triangulation and the Square Root Law'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this