The sphingolipid bases, D-erythro- and D-threo-sphingosines, are the target molecules that have been synthesized to demonstrate the efficiency of a new methodology to control both absolute and relative configurations in acyclic systems. Tubulysins are compounds of extraordinary potency, rapidly degrading the tubulin cytoskeleton, with tubulysin D being the most active tubulin-modifier known so far. Among other isonitriles, isocyanoacetate derivatives occupy an important place in the field of synthetic application and reaction diversity, which makes them strongly attractive objects for investigation. The unique multifunctional nature of isocyanoacetic acid derivatives opens up a range of exciting reactions, especially tandem/cascade processes for the synthesis of complex cyclic and macrocyclic systems. Multicomponent chemistry of isocyanoacetates is also a powerful instrument to access different classes of biochemically relevant compounds such as peptides, peptide molecules, and nitrogen heterocycles.