Background: There is growing concern regarding juvenile sex offenders, and concomitant interest in a more scientific database which could help direct management and treatment resources. Aims: To investigate whether juveniles who sexually offend against children (or those at least five years younger than themselves) differ from those who sexually assault their peers or older victims. Method: The study is based on data from psychological screenings conducted for the juvenile courts in the Netherlands. Results: As hypothesized, juvenile child molesters scored higher on neuroticism, had experienced more social problems, and had been bullied more often at school than their peers who sexually assaulted same-age or older victims. Child molesters also reported a more negative self-image. When referred for screening, they were younger but had committed more sex offences, more often against males than females. Conclusions: The results were suggestive of greater need for psychological interventions in the child molester group, although in both groups substantial minorities had had experience of early childhood deprivation or abuse.