The author looks at the relationship between secularization and ritual uncertainty in a comparison of two Dutch Protestant churches. He contends that liturgies are not necessarily reflective of wider social processes, but rather are formed within internal church dynamics. At the same time, in terms of beliefs, uncertainty in relation to the contested value of the Christian faith is a recurring topic. Some of the new liturgical practices, such as charismatic worship and prayer ministry, address uncertainty by creating a clear sense of the reality of the Christian God. As such, these practices provide congregations with a bounded religious identity, which is attractive to Protestants who look for a new affirmation of Christianity. In turn, liturgical practices that give space to a plurality of beliefs represent diversification within the church and even within society, but lead to a fragmented and weakened sense of identity. © 2008 Social Compass.