Measurement properties of isokinetic dynamometry for assessment of shoulder muscle strength: a systematic review

Lotte Sørensen, Lisa Gregersen Oestergaard, Maurits van Tulder, Annemette Krintel Petersen

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OBJECTIVE: To investigate the evidence of measurement properties of isokinetic dynamometry (ID) for assessment of shoulder muscle strength in healthy individuals and patients with non-neurological shoulder pathology.

DATA SOURCES: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Pubmed, EMBASE, and PEDro were searched up to February 2020 without restrictions. Reference lists and citations were hand-searched.

STUDY SELECTION: Two review authors independently included studies that met the following criteria: 1) evaluating measurement properties of ID when used on the glenohumeral joint and 2) included individuals' ≥ 18 years. Studies including patients with neurologic, neuromuscular, or systemic diseases or critical illness were excluded.

DATA EXTRACTION: The quality assessment and data synthesis were performed according to the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) methodology.

DATA SYNTHESIS: Twenty-one studies with a total of 597 participants were included. The results were combined separately for isometric, concentric, and eccentric test mode, for the velocities 30-60°/s, 90°/s, 120°/s and 240°/s, for the seated, supine and standing position, and for internal rotation (IR), external rotation (ER), and the ER/IR ratio. The reliability of ID was overall sufficient with the majority of intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) ≥0.70. The quality of evidence was moderate or low for 20 out of 30 strata examined. The measurement error results were rated as insufficient for all strata. The standard error of measurement in percent (%SEM) ranged from 4% to 28%. The quality of evidence varied depending of strata examined.

CONCLUSION: The reliability of ID for measurement of shoulder strength was overall sufficient for all positions, velocities and mode of strength. The measurement error was not sufficient. As most studies used the seated position, the velocities 30-60°/s or 120°/s, and the concentric test mode, the quality of evidence was highest for these conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)510-520
Number of pages11
JournalArchives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Issue number3
Early online date30 Jun 2020
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.


The study was funded by Aarhus University , Denmark and Department of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, Aarhus University Hospital , Denmark.

FundersFunder number
Department of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy
Aarhus Universitet
Aarhus Universitetshospital


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