Medium-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins (CPs) Dominate in Australian Sewage Sludge

Sicco H Brandsma, Louise van Mourik, Jake W O'Brien, Geoff Eaglesham, Pim E G Leonards, Jacob de Boer, Christie Gallen, Jochen Mueller, Caroline Gaus, Christian Bogdal

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

To simultaneously quantify and profile the complex mixture of short-, median-, and long-chain CPs (SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs) in Australian sewage sludge, we applied and further validated a recently developed novel instrumental technique, using quadrupole time-of-flight high resolution mass spectrometry running in the negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mode (APCI-qTOF-HRMS). Without using an analytical column the cleaned extracts were directly injected into the qTOF-HRMS followed by quantification of the CPs by a mathematical algorithm. The recoveries of the four SCCP, MCCP and LCCP-spiked sewage sludge samples ranged from 86 to 123%. This APCI-qTOF-HRMS method is a fast and promising technique for routinely measuring SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in sewage sludge. Australian sewage sludge was dominated by MCCPs with concentrations ranging from 542 to 3645 ng/g dry weight (dw). Lower SCCPs concentrations (<57-1421 ng/g dw) were detected in the Australian sewage sludge, which were comparable with the LCCPs concentrations (116-960 ng/g dw). This is the first time that CPs were reported in Australian sewage sludge. The results of this study gives a first impression on the distribution of the SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in Australia wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs).

Original languageEnglish
Article number6
Pages (from-to)3364-3372
Number of pages9
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume51
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Feb 2017

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Sewage
Paraffin
Weights and Measures
Atmospheric Pressure
Waste Water
Complex Mixtures
Mass Spectrometry

Keywords

  • Journal Article

Cite this

Brandsma, Sicco H ; van Mourik, Louise ; O'Brien, Jake W ; Eaglesham, Geoff ; Leonards, Pim E G ; de Boer, Jacob ; Gallen, Christie ; Mueller, Jochen ; Gaus, Caroline ; Bogdal, Christian. / Medium-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins (CPs) Dominate in Australian Sewage Sludge. In: Environmental Science and Technology. 2017 ; Vol. 51. pp. 3364-3372.
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Medium-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins (CPs) Dominate in Australian Sewage Sludge. / Brandsma, Sicco H; van Mourik, Louise; O'Brien, Jake W; Eaglesham, Geoff; Leonards, Pim E G; de Boer, Jacob; Gallen, Christie; Mueller, Jochen; Gaus, Caroline; Bogdal, Christian.

In: Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 51, 6, 20.02.2017, p. 3364-3372.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Medium-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins (CPs) Dominate in Australian Sewage Sludge

AU - Brandsma, Sicco H

AU - van Mourik, Louise

AU - O'Brien, Jake W

AU - Eaglesham, Geoff

AU - Leonards, Pim E G

AU - de Boer, Jacob

AU - Gallen, Christie

AU - Mueller, Jochen

AU - Gaus, Caroline

AU - Bogdal, Christian

PY - 2017/2/20

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N2 - To simultaneously quantify and profile the complex mixture of short-, median-, and long-chain CPs (SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs) in Australian sewage sludge, we applied and further validated a recently developed novel instrumental technique, using quadrupole time-of-flight high resolution mass spectrometry running in the negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mode (APCI-qTOF-HRMS). Without using an analytical column the cleaned extracts were directly injected into the qTOF-HRMS followed by quantification of the CPs by a mathematical algorithm. The recoveries of the four SCCP, MCCP and LCCP-spiked sewage sludge samples ranged from 86 to 123%. This APCI-qTOF-HRMS method is a fast and promising technique for routinely measuring SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in sewage sludge. Australian sewage sludge was dominated by MCCPs with concentrations ranging from 542 to 3645 ng/g dry weight (dw). Lower SCCPs concentrations (<57-1421 ng/g dw) were detected in the Australian sewage sludge, which were comparable with the LCCPs concentrations (116-960 ng/g dw). This is the first time that CPs were reported in Australian sewage sludge. The results of this study gives a first impression on the distribution of the SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in Australia wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs).

AB - To simultaneously quantify and profile the complex mixture of short-, median-, and long-chain CPs (SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs) in Australian sewage sludge, we applied and further validated a recently developed novel instrumental technique, using quadrupole time-of-flight high resolution mass spectrometry running in the negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mode (APCI-qTOF-HRMS). Without using an analytical column the cleaned extracts were directly injected into the qTOF-HRMS followed by quantification of the CPs by a mathematical algorithm. The recoveries of the four SCCP, MCCP and LCCP-spiked sewage sludge samples ranged from 86 to 123%. This APCI-qTOF-HRMS method is a fast and promising technique for routinely measuring SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in sewage sludge. Australian sewage sludge was dominated by MCCPs with concentrations ranging from 542 to 3645 ng/g dry weight (dw). Lower SCCPs concentrations (<57-1421 ng/g dw) were detected in the Australian sewage sludge, which were comparable with the LCCPs concentrations (116-960 ng/g dw). This is the first time that CPs were reported in Australian sewage sludge. The results of this study gives a first impression on the distribution of the SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in Australia wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs).

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