Incorporating a biomimetic coating and integrating osteoinductive biomolecules into basic bone substitutes are two common strategies to improve osteogenic capabilities in bone tissue engineering. Currently, the underlying mechanism of osteoporosis (OP)-related deficiency of osteogenesis remains unclear, and few treatments target at OP-related bone regeneration. Herein, we describe a self-assembling polyelectrolyte multilayered (PEM) film coating with local immobilisation of calcitriol (Cal) in biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds to promote osteoporotic bone regeneration by targeting the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR). Methods: The ovariectomy-induced functional changes in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), protective effects of Cal, and the potential mechanism were all verified. A PEM film composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) and chitosan (Chi) was prepared through layer-by-layer self-assembly. The morphology, growth behaviour, and drug retention capability of the composite scaffolds were characterised, and their biocompatibility and therapeutic efficacy for bone regeneration were systematically explored in vitro and in vivo. Results: The osteogenic differentiation, adhesion, and proliferation abilities of ovariectomised rat BMSCs (OVX-rBMSCs) decreased, in accordance with the deficiency of CaSR. Cal effectively activated osteogenesis in these OVX-rBMSCs by binding specifically to the active pocket of the CaSR structure, while the biomimetic PEM coating augmented OVX-rBMSCs proliferation and adhesion due to its porous surface structure. The PEM-coated scaffolds showed advantages in Cal loading and retention, especially at lower drug concentrations. HA/Chi PEM synergised with Cal to improve the proliferation, adhesion, and osteogenesis of OVX-rBMSCs and promote bone regeneration and BCP degradation in the critical-size calvarial bone defect model of OVX rats. Conclusion: A composite scaffold based on BCP, created by simply combining a biomimetic PEM coating and Cal immobilisation, could be clinically useful and has marked advantages as a targeted, off-the-shelf, cell-free treatment option for osteoporotic bone regeneration.