We estimate the impact of local mining activity on the business constraints experienced by 25,777 firms across nine large and resource-rich countries. We find that the presence of active mines in firms' immediate vicinity (<20 km) deteriorates the business environment in tradeable sectors. Access to inputs and infrastructure becomes more constrained for these firms and this adversely affects their growth. In contrast, nearby active mines have a positive effect on firms in non-tradeable sectors. Moreover, we show that the presence of mines at a greater distance (21–150 km) relaxes business constraints of all firms, in line with positive regional spending effects.