In the Netherlands the general responses to the problems of the developing multi-ethnic society have been deeply influenced by its history of so-called "pillarization". This chapter begins with a description of the rather radical transformation of Dutch society from a pillarized into a multi-ethnic state. Next, a brief account of the central problems of the present multi-ethnic society is presented. Finally, we discuss whether the integration and emancipation of ethnic minorities are promoted by encouraging them to create their own pillars. Is the policy of re-pillarization both feasible and desirable? One of the main objections to the policy is that such a way of organizing modern Dutch society is hardly compatible with the demands of liberal civic education. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.