Mutagenicity of halogenated and other substituted dinitrobenzenes in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and derivatives deficient in glutathione (TA100/GSH-) and nitroreductase (TA100NR)

P R Kerklaan, S. Bouter, J.M. te Koppele, N P Vermeulen, P.J. van Bladeren, G R Mohn

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

In a previous study, it was shown that 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) was less mutagenic in a glutathione (GSH)-deficient derivative of Salmonella typhimurium TA100 (TA100/GSH-) than in TA100 itself, suggesting that the mutagenicity of the compound is dependent on GSH, possibly mediated by the action of a bacterial nitroreductase(s) on the CDNB-GSH conjugate. In the present study a series of mutagenicity tests were performed to determine how CDNB could be activated after reaction with GSH. In liquid preincubation assays, strains TA100, TA100/GSH- and TA100NR, a nitroreductase-deficient derivative of TA100, were treated with CDNB and its fluoro and bromo analogues (FDNB and BDNB), further with its GSH conjugate (S-GSH-DNB) and possible metabolic products, such as S-cysteine-dinitrobenzene (S-Cys-DNB) and S-methyl-dinitrobenzene (S-methyl-DNB), and with 2 more analogues, O-methyl-dinitrobenzene (O-methyl-DNB) and dinitrobenzene (DNB). CDNB, FDNB and BDNB were found to be mutagenic in TA100 and TA100NR, while TA100/GSH- was much less sensitive to the mutagenic action of these halogenated dinitrobenzenes. DNB, O-methyl-DNB, S-methyl-DNB and S-Cys-DNB induced equal numbers of His+ revertants in TA100 and TA100/GSH-, but were not mutagenic in TA100NR. S-GSH-DNB showed no mutagenic activity in any of the 3 strains under the present experimental conditions. These results suggest that the halogenated aromatics may react with bacterial DNA and produce pre-mutagenic alterations according to 2 mechanisms: direct attack on the DNA through nucleophilic substitution (SN2) of the halogen atoms; activation through GSH conjugation and subsequent nitroreduction of the conjugate or its metabolic products to more reactive intermediates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)171-8
Number of pages8
JournalMutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis
Volume176
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1987

Fingerprint

Nitroreductases
Dinitrobenzenes
Salmonella typhimurium
Glutathione
Cysteine
Mutagenicity Tests
Dinitrochlorobenzene
Bacterial DNA
Halogens

Keywords

  • Bacterial Proteins
  • DNA Damage
  • DNA, Bacterial
  • Dinitrobenzenes
  • Glutathione Reductase
  • Nitrobenzenes
  • Nitroreductases
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Oxidoreductases
  • Salmonella typhimurium
  • Comparative Study
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Cite this

@article{d3d2665085a243fcb0acc5ba481055b9,
title = "Mutagenicity of halogenated and other substituted dinitrobenzenes in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and derivatives deficient in glutathione (TA100/GSH-) and nitroreductase (TA100NR)",
abstract = "In a previous study, it was shown that 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) was less mutagenic in a glutathione (GSH)-deficient derivative of Salmonella typhimurium TA100 (TA100/GSH-) than in TA100 itself, suggesting that the mutagenicity of the compound is dependent on GSH, possibly mediated by the action of a bacterial nitroreductase(s) on the CDNB-GSH conjugate. In the present study a series of mutagenicity tests were performed to determine how CDNB could be activated after reaction with GSH. In liquid preincubation assays, strains TA100, TA100/GSH- and TA100NR, a nitroreductase-deficient derivative of TA100, were treated with CDNB and its fluoro and bromo analogues (FDNB and BDNB), further with its GSH conjugate (S-GSH-DNB) and possible metabolic products, such as S-cysteine-dinitrobenzene (S-Cys-DNB) and S-methyl-dinitrobenzene (S-methyl-DNB), and with 2 more analogues, O-methyl-dinitrobenzene (O-methyl-DNB) and dinitrobenzene (DNB). CDNB, FDNB and BDNB were found to be mutagenic in TA100 and TA100NR, while TA100/GSH- was much less sensitive to the mutagenic action of these halogenated dinitrobenzenes. DNB, O-methyl-DNB, S-methyl-DNB and S-Cys-DNB induced equal numbers of His+ revertants in TA100 and TA100/GSH-, but were not mutagenic in TA100NR. S-GSH-DNB showed no mutagenic activity in any of the 3 strains under the present experimental conditions. These results suggest that the halogenated aromatics may react with bacterial DNA and produce pre-mutagenic alterations according to 2 mechanisms: direct attack on the DNA through nucleophilic substitution (SN2) of the halogen atoms; activation through GSH conjugation and subsequent nitroreduction of the conjugate or its metabolic products to more reactive intermediates.",
keywords = "Bacterial Proteins, DNA Damage, DNA, Bacterial, Dinitrobenzenes, Glutathione Reductase, Nitrobenzenes, Nitroreductases, Oxidation-Reduction, Oxidoreductases, Salmonella typhimurium, Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't",
author = "Kerklaan, {P R} and S. Bouter and {te Koppele}, J.M. and Vermeulen, {N P} and {van Bladeren}, P.J. and Mohn, {G R}",
year = "1987",
month = "2",
doi = "10.1016/0027-5107(87)90047-9",
language = "English",
volume = "176",
pages = "171--8",
journal = "Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis",
issn = "0027-5107",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "2",

}

Mutagenicity of halogenated and other substituted dinitrobenzenes in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and derivatives deficient in glutathione (TA100/GSH-) and nitroreductase (TA100NR). / Kerklaan, P R; Bouter, S.; te Koppele, J.M.; Vermeulen, N P; van Bladeren, P.J.; Mohn, G R.

In: Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, Vol. 176, No. 2, 02.1987, p. 171-8.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Mutagenicity of halogenated and other substituted dinitrobenzenes in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and derivatives deficient in glutathione (TA100/GSH-) and nitroreductase (TA100NR)

AU - Kerklaan, P R

AU - Bouter, S.

AU - te Koppele, J.M.

AU - Vermeulen, N P

AU - van Bladeren, P.J.

AU - Mohn, G R

PY - 1987/2

Y1 - 1987/2

N2 - In a previous study, it was shown that 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) was less mutagenic in a glutathione (GSH)-deficient derivative of Salmonella typhimurium TA100 (TA100/GSH-) than in TA100 itself, suggesting that the mutagenicity of the compound is dependent on GSH, possibly mediated by the action of a bacterial nitroreductase(s) on the CDNB-GSH conjugate. In the present study a series of mutagenicity tests were performed to determine how CDNB could be activated after reaction with GSH. In liquid preincubation assays, strains TA100, TA100/GSH- and TA100NR, a nitroreductase-deficient derivative of TA100, were treated with CDNB and its fluoro and bromo analogues (FDNB and BDNB), further with its GSH conjugate (S-GSH-DNB) and possible metabolic products, such as S-cysteine-dinitrobenzene (S-Cys-DNB) and S-methyl-dinitrobenzene (S-methyl-DNB), and with 2 more analogues, O-methyl-dinitrobenzene (O-methyl-DNB) and dinitrobenzene (DNB). CDNB, FDNB and BDNB were found to be mutagenic in TA100 and TA100NR, while TA100/GSH- was much less sensitive to the mutagenic action of these halogenated dinitrobenzenes. DNB, O-methyl-DNB, S-methyl-DNB and S-Cys-DNB induced equal numbers of His+ revertants in TA100 and TA100/GSH-, but were not mutagenic in TA100NR. S-GSH-DNB showed no mutagenic activity in any of the 3 strains under the present experimental conditions. These results suggest that the halogenated aromatics may react with bacterial DNA and produce pre-mutagenic alterations according to 2 mechanisms: direct attack on the DNA through nucleophilic substitution (SN2) of the halogen atoms; activation through GSH conjugation and subsequent nitroreduction of the conjugate or its metabolic products to more reactive intermediates.

AB - In a previous study, it was shown that 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) was less mutagenic in a glutathione (GSH)-deficient derivative of Salmonella typhimurium TA100 (TA100/GSH-) than in TA100 itself, suggesting that the mutagenicity of the compound is dependent on GSH, possibly mediated by the action of a bacterial nitroreductase(s) on the CDNB-GSH conjugate. In the present study a series of mutagenicity tests were performed to determine how CDNB could be activated after reaction with GSH. In liquid preincubation assays, strains TA100, TA100/GSH- and TA100NR, a nitroreductase-deficient derivative of TA100, were treated with CDNB and its fluoro and bromo analogues (FDNB and BDNB), further with its GSH conjugate (S-GSH-DNB) and possible metabolic products, such as S-cysteine-dinitrobenzene (S-Cys-DNB) and S-methyl-dinitrobenzene (S-methyl-DNB), and with 2 more analogues, O-methyl-dinitrobenzene (O-methyl-DNB) and dinitrobenzene (DNB). CDNB, FDNB and BDNB were found to be mutagenic in TA100 and TA100NR, while TA100/GSH- was much less sensitive to the mutagenic action of these halogenated dinitrobenzenes. DNB, O-methyl-DNB, S-methyl-DNB and S-Cys-DNB induced equal numbers of His+ revertants in TA100 and TA100/GSH-, but were not mutagenic in TA100NR. S-GSH-DNB showed no mutagenic activity in any of the 3 strains under the present experimental conditions. These results suggest that the halogenated aromatics may react with bacterial DNA and produce pre-mutagenic alterations according to 2 mechanisms: direct attack on the DNA through nucleophilic substitution (SN2) of the halogen atoms; activation through GSH conjugation and subsequent nitroreduction of the conjugate or its metabolic products to more reactive intermediates.

KW - Bacterial Proteins

KW - DNA Damage

KW - DNA, Bacterial

KW - Dinitrobenzenes

KW - Glutathione Reductase

KW - Nitrobenzenes

KW - Nitroreductases

KW - Oxidation-Reduction

KW - Oxidoreductases

KW - Salmonella typhimurium

KW - Comparative Study

KW - Journal Article

KW - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

U2 - 10.1016/0027-5107(87)90047-9

DO - 10.1016/0027-5107(87)90047-9

M3 - Article

VL - 176

SP - 171

EP - 178

JO - Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis

JF - Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis

SN - 0027-5107

IS - 2

ER -