Mutational analysis of a vaccinia virus intermediate promoter in vivo and in vitro

P Hirschmann, J C Vos, H.G. Stunnenberg

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The expression of the vaccinia virus intermediate I3 gene depends on trans-acting factors which are present in an active state prior to DNA replication. However, activation of transcription requires DNA replication in cis (J. C. Vos and H. G. Stunnenberg, EMBO J., 7:3487-3492, 1988). We have made deletion and linker scanner mutations of the I3 promoter to determine the sequence requirements for transcriptional activity and the dependence of DNA replication. The I3 promoter appears to consist of two elements which are essential and sufficient for accurate transcription initiation both in vivo and in vitro. An upstream and a downstream sequence element were defined ranging from -20 to -9 and +1 to +9, respectively. The upstream element appears to be highly homologous to a sequence in the intermediate I8 promoter. A 3-bp substitution in the upstream I3 promoter element resulted in a change of transcriptional specificity from intermediate to late. Finally, the mutations did not result in an activation of the intermediate promoter prior to DNA replication.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6063-9
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Virology
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1990


  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Cell Line
  • Chromosome Deletion
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • DNA Replication
  • Genes, Viral
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutagenesis, Insertional
  • Plasmids
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • RNA, Viral
  • Restriction Mapping
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Vaccinia virus
  • Comparative Study
  • Journal Article


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