CSF N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) has been found to be elevated in some hypomyelinating disorders. This study addressed the question whether it could be used as a marker for hypomyelination and as a means to distinguish between hypomyelinating disorders biochemically. We have measured CSF NAAG in a cohort of 28 patients with hypomyelination with known and unknown aetiology. NAAG was found to be elevated in 7 patients, but was normal in the majority, including patients with defined hypomyelinating disorders. CSF NAAG is not a universal marker of hypomyelination, and the mechanism of its elevation remains poorly understood. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.