Nanofractionation Platform with Parallel Mass Spectrometry for Identification of CYP1A2 Inhibitors in Metabolic Mixtures

Barbara M. Zietek, Marija Mladic, Ben Bruyneel, Wilfried M.A. Niessen, Maarten Honing, Govert W. Somsen, Jeroen Kool*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


With early assessment of inhibitory properties of drug candidates and their circulating metabolites toward cytochrome P450 enzymes, drug attrition, especially later in the drug development process, can be decreased. Here we describe the development and validation of an at-line nanofractionation platform, which was applied for screening of CYP1A2 inhibitors in Phase I metabolic mixtures. With this platform, a metabolic mixture is separated by liquid chromatography (LC), followed by parallel nanofractionation on a microtiter well plate and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. After solvent evaporation, all metabolites present in the nanofractionated mixture are assayed utilizing a fluorescence CYP1A2 inhibition bioassay performed on the plate. Next, a bioactivity chromatogram is constructed from the bioassay results. By peak shape and retention time correlation of the bioactivity peaks with the obtained MS data, CYP1A2-bioactive inhibiting metabolites can be identified. The method correctly evaluated the potency of five CYP1A2 inhibitors. Mixtures comprising potent inhibitors of CYP1A2 or in vitro–generated metabolites of ellipticine were evaluated for their inhibitory bioactivities. In both cases, good LC separation of all compounds was achieved and bioactivity data could be accurately correlated with the parallel recorded MS data. Generation and evaluation of Phase II metabolites of hydroxylated ellipticine was also pursued.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)283-293
Number of pages11
JournalSLAS Discovery
Issue number3
Early online date21 Dec 2017
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2018


The authors acknowledge ARIADME, a European FP7 ITN Community’s Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement No. 607517.

FundersFunder number
Seventh Framework Programme607517


    • ADME
    • CYPs
    • drug profiling
    • drug–drug interactions
    • nanofractionation


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