Modern neuroscience research, including neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), has provided valuable insights that advanced our understanding of brain development and learning processes significantly. However, there is a lively discussion about whether and how these insights can be meaningful to the educational practice. One of the main challenges is the low ecological validity of neuroimaging studies, making it hard to translate neuroimaging findings to real-life learning situations. Here, we describe four approaches that increase the ecological validity of neuroimaging experiments: using more naturalistic stimuli and tasks, moving the research to more naturalistic settings by using portable neuroimaging devices, combining tightly controlled lab-based neuroimaging measurements with real-life variables and follow-up field studies, and including stakeholders from the practice at all stages of the research. We illustrate these approaches with examples and explain how these directions of research optimize the benefits of neuroimaging techniques to study learning anddevelopment. This paper provides a frontline overview of methodological approaches that can be used for future neuroimaging studies to increase their ecological validity and thereby their relevance and applicability to the learning practice.