Norms for the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) in a Large Dutch Community Sample.

J. Roelofs, G. van Breukelen, L.E. de Graaf, A.T. Beck, A. Arntz, M.J.H. Huibers

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) is a widely used instrument that provides information about the presence and severity of depressive symptoms. Although the BDI-II is a psychometrically sound instrument, relatively little is known about norm scores. This study aimed to develop reliable norms for the BDI-II in a Dutch community sample. Gender, age, and education were hypothesized to predict BDI-II scores. A total of 7,500 respondents from a community sample in The Netherlands completed the BDI-II. It was investigated by means of multiple regression analysis whether distinct norms for genders, education levels, and age group are appropriate. BDI-II scores depended on gender and education level, but not on age. BDI-II norms were computed based on the final regression model. These BDI-II norms can be used for diagnostic purposes, clinical decision making, or the evaluation of treatment effects. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1
Pages (from-to)93-98
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2013


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