The aim of the current study was to investigate whether alterations in N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) reflect changes in right ventricular structure and function in pulmonary hypertension patients during treatment. The study consisted of 30 pulmonary hypertension patients; 15 newly diagnosed and 15 on long-term treatment. NT-proBNP, right heart catheterisation and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging measurements were performed, at baseline and follow-up. There were no significant differences between newly diagnosed patients and those on treatment at baseline or follow-up with respect to NT-proBNP, haemodynamics and right ventricular parameters. Relative changes in NT-proBNP during treatment were correlated to the relative changes in right ventricular end-diastolic volume index (r = 0.59), right ventricular mass index (r = 0.62) and right ventricular ejection fraction (r= -0.81). N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide measurements reflect changes in magnetic resonance imaging-measured right ventricular structure and function in pulmonary hypertension patients. An increase in N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide over time reflects right ventricular dilatation concomitant to hypertrophy and deterioration of systolic function. Copyright © ERS Journals Ltd 2006.