In this paper we report the results of an experiment with automated landform delineation and classification from digital elevation models (DEMs) using object-based image analysis (OBIA). Archaeologists rely on accurate and detailed geomorphological maps to predict and interpret the location of archaeological sites. However, they have been using high-resolution DEMs primarily for visual interpretation and expert-judgement classification of landform. OBIA can perform these classifications much faster and in a more objective fashion. The method was tested on a study area in the south east of the Netherlands. It is concluded that OBIA is a suitable technique for quick and objective delineation of landform, but needs an improved conceptual framework adapted to the local situation and archaeological questions to better identify and interpret the derived landform objects. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.