The acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) is considered an analogue for the ligand-binding domain of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Its stability and solubility in aqueous buffer allowed the development of an online bioaffinity analysis system. For this, a tracer ligand which displays enhanced fluorescence in the binding pocket of AChBP was identified from a concise series of synthetic benzylidene anabaseines. Evaluation and optimization of the bioaffinity assay was performed in a convenient microplate reader format and subsequently transferred to the online format. The high reproducibility has the prospect of estimating the affinities of ligands from an in-house drug discovery library injected in one known concentration. Furthermore, the online bioaffinity analysis system could also be applied to mixture analysis by using gradient HPLC. This led to the possibility of affinity ranking of ligands in mixtures with parallel high-resolution mass spectrometry for compound identification. © 2010 American Chemical Society.