Optimizing design and employing permeability differences to achieve flow confinement in devices for spatial multidimensional liquid chromatography

Theodora Adamopoulou*, Sander Deridder, Tijmen S. Bos, Suhas Nawada, Gert Desmet, Peter J. Schoenmakers

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


In spatial multi-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC) devices the flow of each dimension has to remain in the corresponding region, otherwise the separation efficiency is undermined. Adequate flow-confinement measures are necessary. Here, the use of permeability differences across different compartments of spatial two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) LC devices as a method to guide fluid flow and reduce analyte loss during the first, second- and third-dimension development was investigated with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. In case of 2DLC devices, it was shown that porous barriers with a permeability on the order of 10−12 m2 suffice to keep the total sample spillage from an open 1D channel under 1%. In case of 3DLC devices, it was shown that flow confinement could be achieved using an open 1D channel in combination with a highly-permeable monolith (permeability on the order of 10−12 m2) in the second-dimension (2D) and a less permeable packing with a permeability on the order of 10−15 m2 (e.g. 1 μm particles) in the third-dimension (3D). Additionally, the impact of the 3D flow-distributor has been studied and a novel design, capable of limiting the spillage to the other dimensions to the absolute minimum, is proposed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number460665
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Chromatography A
Early online date31 Oct 2019
Publication statusPublished - 8 Feb 2020



  • Computational fluid dynamics
  • Flow-confinement
  • Flow-control
  • Multi-dimensional LC
  • Spatial chromatography

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