Background: Worldwide, oral contraceptive (OC) use is a very common form of birth control, although it has been associated with symptoms of depression and insomnia. Insomnia is a risk factor for major depressive disorder (MDD) but may also be a symptom of the disorder. Despite the large number of women who use OC, it is yet unknown whether women with previous or current diagnosis of depression are more likely to experience more severe depressive and insomnia symptoms during concurrent OC use than women without diagnosis of depression. Aim: This study examined associations between OC use and concurrent symptoms of depression (including atypical depression) and insomnia as well as between OC and prevalences of concurrent dysthymia and MDD. Participants were adult women with and without a history of MDD or dysthymia. We hypothesized that OC use is associated with concurrent increased severity of depressive symptoms and insomnia symptoms, as well as with an increased prevalence of concurrent diagnoses of dysthymia and MDD. We also hypothesized that a history of MDD or dysthymia moderates the relationship between OC use and depressive and insomnia symptoms. Methods: Measurements from premenopausal adult women from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were grouped, based on whether participants were using OC or naturally cycling (NC). OC use, timing and regularity of the menstrual cycle were assessed with a structured interview, self-reported symptoms of depression (including atypical depression), insomnia with validated questionnaires, and MDD and dysthymia with structured diagnostic interviews. Results: We included a total of 1301 measurements in women who reported OC use and 1913 measurements in NC women (mean age 35.6, 49.8% and 28.9% of measurements in women with a previous depression or current depression, respectively). Linear mixed models showed that overall, OC use was neither associated with more severe depressive symptoms (including atypical depressive symptoms), nor with higher prevalence of diagnoses of MDD or dysthymia. However, by disentangling the amalgamated overall effect, within-person estimates indicated increased depressive symptoms and depressive disorder prevalence during OC use, whereas between-person estimated indicated lower depressive symptoms and prevalence of depressive disorders. OC use was consistently associated with more severe concurrent insomnia symptoms, in the overall estimates as well as in the within-person and between-person estimates. Presence of current or previous MDD or dysthymia did not moderate the associations between OC use and depressive or insomnia symptoms. Discussion: The study findings showed consistent associations between OC use and more severe insomnia symptoms, but no consistent associations between OC and depressive symptoms or diagnoses. Instead, post-hoc analyses showed that associations between OC and depression differed between within- and between person-estimates. This indicates that, although OC shows no associations on the overall level, some individuals might experience OC-associated mood symptoms. Our findings underscore the importance of accounting for individual differences in experiences during OC use. Furthermore, it raises new questions about mechanisms underlying associations between OC, depression and insomnia.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
BP has received (non-related) research funding from Boehringer Ingelheim and Jansen Research . All other authors involved in the study do not have any financial or non-financial conflicts to declare.
The infrastructure for the NESDA study ( www.nesda.nl ) is funded through the Geestkracht program of the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZonMw, grant number 10-000-1002 ) and financial contributions by participating universities and mental health care organizations (VU University Medical Center, GGZ inGeest, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden University, GGZ Rivierduinen, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Lentis, GGZ Friesland, GGZ Drenthe, Rob Giel Onderzoekscentrum). BB is supported by a Veni grant (grant number 91619085 , 2018), from the NWO, Netherlands .
© 2021 The Authors
- Oral Contraceptives
- Sex Hormones
- Sleep Problems