Organizational Controls and Performance Outcomes: A Meta-Analytic Assessment and Extension

Vikrant Sihag, S.A. Rijsdijk

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Managing employees and external partners effectively has been a primary concern for organizations and their managers. Many studies have investigated the effectiveness of organizational controls in a wide variety of contexts. Using organizational controls literature that discriminates among outcome, behaviour, and clan control, this study synthesizes the research on the effectiveness of these controls. In particular, the study examines 23,839 organizational controls?performance relationships from 120 independent samples, and tests several new hypotheses using advanced meta-analytic methods. The results indicate that outcome, behaviour, and clan controls generally enhance performance, with each control having a distinct performance effect. Our analysis also demonstrates that controls function as complements to one another. This finding indicates that one form of control increases the effectiveness of other forms of control. We also examine the organizational controls?performance relationships across various contexts, and our results show that they vary according to the type of task. The paper concludes with a discussion on the theoretical and managerial implications of these findings.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)91-133
Number of pages43
JournalJournal of Management Studies
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2019


We thank special issue guest editors Jim Combs, Russell Crook, Andreas Rauch, and two anonymous reviewers for their valuable feedback throughout the review process. We also thank Kelly van Dortmont for her support in data collection and our colleagues in the Department of Technology and Operations Management at Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University for their valuable comments. Our paper also benefitted from comments from seminar participants at the Journal of Management Studies Special Issue Paper Development Workshop (2016) at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville.

FundersFunder number
Department of Technology and Operations Management at Rotterdam School of Management
Erasmus University
University of Tennessee


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