This study aimed to explore if natural dizygotic (DZ) twinning is associated with earlier menopause and lower anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) values. We investigated if advanced biological reproductive aging, which can be responsible for the multiple follicle growth in familial twinning, is similar to mechanisms that occur in normal ovarian aging, reflected by earlier menopause in mothers of DZ twins and lower levels of AMH. A total of 16 mothers of DZ twins enrolled with the Netherlands Twin Register (average age at first assessment: 35.9 ± 3.0 years) and 14 control mothers (35.1 ± 3 years) took part in a prospective study. Fifteen years after entry into the study, which included follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) assessment, AMH was measured in stored serum samples and menopause status was evaluated. Average AMH levels were not significantly different between DZ twin mothers and controls (2.1 ± 2.4 μg/L vs. 1.9 ± 1.9 μg/L). Among the 16 mothers of twins, 7 had an elevated (FSH) value over 10 U/L at first assessment. Their AMH levels were lower than the nine twin mothers with normal FSH values: 0.6 ± 0.4 versus 3.4 ± 2.6 μg/L (p =.01). Of the mothers of twins, eight mothers had entered menopause at the second assessment compared with only one control mother (p =.07). Thus, slightly more DZ mothers were in menopause than the control mothers, although this difference was not significant. The subgroup of DZ twin mothers who had an increased FSH concentration 15 years ago had a limited ovarian reserve as reflected by lower AMH levels. These data indicate that advanced ovarian aging can be a feature in familial DZ twinning, particularly with elevated early follicular phase FSH. © The Authors 2013.