Palladium-based dental alloys are associated with oral disease and palladium-induced immune responses

J. Muris, R.J. Scheper, C.J. Kleverlaan, T. Rustemeyer, I.M.W. van Hoogstraten, M.E. von Blomberg, A.J. Feilzer

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Palladium (Pd) and gold (Au) based dental alloys have been associated with oral disease.

This study was designed to explore possible associations between the presence of Au-based and Pd-based dental alloys, and oral lesions, systemic complaints, and specific in vivo and in vitro immune responses.

The investigated population consisted of three groups: 26 non-metal-allergic volunteers, 25 metal-allergic patients, and 20 oral disease patients. Medical histories were taken, oral examinations were carried out, and compositions of all dental alloys were determined. Then, Au and Pd patch tests and in vitro assays were performed, revealing cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells [T helper (Th)1, interferon-γ; Th2, interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13] and lymphocyte proliferation (LTT-MELISA®).

Non-plaque-related gingivitis was associated with the presence of Pd-based dental alloys, and Pd-positive patch tests and in vitro assays. Collectively, participants with Pd-based dental alloys showed increased Pd patch test reactivity (p < 0.05) and lymphoproliferation (p < 0.05). In contrast, oral lichenoid lesions were associated with Au-based alloys (p < 0.05), but this was not reflected by Au-specific immunoreactivity.

Oral lesions and Pd-induced immune responses are associated with the presence of dental alloys. However, most oral disease patients did not show positive patch test results or in vitro signs of specific immunoreactivity, suggesting local toxic reactions or the involvement of innate immune responses.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)82-91
JournalContact Dermatitis
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2014


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