Paper-based analytical device for electrochemical flow-injection analysis of glucose in urine.

J. Lankelma, Z. Nie, E. Carrilho, G.M. Whitesides

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


This article describes a new design for a paper-based electrochemical system for flow-injection analysis. Capillary wicking facilitates a gravity-driven flow of buffer solution continuously through paper and nitrocellulose, from a buffer reservoir at one end of the device to a sink at the other. A difference in height between the reservoir and the sink leads to a continuous and constant flow. The nitrocellulose lies horizontally on a working electrode, which consists of a thin platinum layer deposited on a solid support. The counter and reference electrodes are strategically positioned upstream in the buffer reservoir. A simple pipetting device was developed for reliable application of (sub)microliter volumes of sample without the need of commercial micropipets; this device did not damage the nitrocellulose membrane. Demonstration of the system for the determination of the concentration of glucose in urine resulted in a noninvasive, quantitative assay that could be used for diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes. This method does not require disposable test strips, with enzyme and electrodes, that are thrown away after each measurement. Because of its low cost, this system could be used in medical environments that are resource-limited. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4147-4152
JournalAnalytical Chemistry
Publication statusPublished - 2012


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