Perceived determinants of children’s inadequate sleep health. A concept mapping study among professionals

Laura S. Belmon*, Fay B. Brasser, Vincent Busch, Maartje M. van Stralen, Irene A. Harmsen, Mai J.M. Chinapaw

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


An increasing number of children experience inadequate sleep, which negatively effects their health. To promote healthy sleep among children, it is essential to understand the underlying determinants. This online concept mapping study therefore explores potential determinants of children’s inadequate sleep as perceived by professionals with expertise in the sleep health of children aged 4–12 years. Participants (n = 27) were divided in three groups: (1) doctors (n = 9); (2) nurses (n = 11); (3) sleep experts (n = 7). Participants generated potential determinants (i.e., ideas) of children’s inadequate sleep. Subsequently, they sorted all ideas by relatedness and rated their importance. These data were analysed using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis. The results of all three groups were combined and validated by an additional group of professionals (n = 16). A large variety of perceived determinants were identified. The most important determinants perceived by all groups belonged to the categories psychosocial determinants (i.e., worrying, a change in daily life), daytime and evening activities (i.e., screen use before bedtime, stimulating game play before bedtime, inadequate amount of daytime physical activity), and pedagogical determinants (i.e., inconsistent sleep schedule, lack of a bedtime routine). These perspectives are valuable for future longitudinal studies on the determinants of children’s sleep and the development of future healthy sleep interventions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7315
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 7 Oct 2020


  • Child health care
  • Child public health
  • Childhood
  • Children
  • Concept mapping
  • Determinants
  • Factors
  • Professionals
  • Sleep


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