Photophysics and optical switching in green fluorescent protein mutants

T.M.H. Creemers, A.J. Lock, V. Subramaniam, T.M. Jovin, S. Völker

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


We demonstrate by using low-temperature high-resolution spectroscopy that red-shifted mutants of green fluorescent protein are photo- interconverted among three conformations and are, therefore, not photostable 'one-color' systems as previously believed. From our experiments we have further derived the energy-level schemes governing the interconversion among the three forms. These results have significant implications for the molecular and cell biological applications of the green fluorescent protein family; for example, in fluorescence resonant energy transfer experiments, a change in 'color' on irradiation may not necessarily be due to energy transfer but can also arise from a photo-induced conversion between conformers of the excited species.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2974-2978
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Publication statusPublished - 2000


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