### Abstract

At the start of mathematics education children are often presented with addition and subtraction problems in the form of pictures. They are asked to solve the problems by filling in corresponding number sentences. One type of problem concerns the representation of an increase or a decrease in a depicted amount. A decrease is, however, more difficult to represent in paper pictorially than an increase. Within the Cognitive Load Theory framework, we expected that commonly used decrease problems would be harder and slower to solve than increase problems because of higher intrinsic cognitive load. We also hypothesised that combining the pictorial information with auditory information would reduce this load and, as a result, would lead to improved performance. We further expected that these effects would be most prominent in children who score below average on a general mathematics test. We conducted an experiment with sixty children attending the first grade of primary school, who were divided into a higher and lower mathematics-achieving group. As expected, children performed worse on the decrease problems compared to the increase problems. Also, the combination of pictorial and auditory information reduced the accuracy lag of the decrease problems compared to the increase problems. With response time this effect occurred only in the group of lower mathematics achieving children. These results are in line with the cognitive load theory framework, but we also offer an alternative explanation regarding attention.

Original language | English |
---|---|

Pages (from-to) | 39-55 |

Number of pages | 17 |

Journal | Educational Studies in Mathematics |

Volume | 98 |

Issue number | 1 |

Early online date | 4 Feb 2018 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - May 2018 |

### Fingerprint

### Keywords

- Arithmetic
- Cognitive load theory
- Mathematical word problems
- Modality effect
- Pictures
- Primary school

### Cite this

}

*Educational Studies in Mathematics*, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 39-55. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10649-017-9802-3

**Pictorial representations of simple arithmetic problems are not always helpful: a cognitive load perspective.** / van Lieshout, Ernest C.D.M.; Xenidou-Dervou, Iro.

Research output: Contribution to Journal › Article › Academic › peer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Pictorial representations of simple arithmetic problems are not always helpful: a cognitive load perspective

AU - van Lieshout, Ernest C.D.M.

AU - Xenidou-Dervou, Iro

PY - 2018/5

Y1 - 2018/5

N2 - At the start of mathematics education children are often presented with addition and subtraction problems in the form of pictures. They are asked to solve the problems by filling in corresponding number sentences. One type of problem concerns the representation of an increase or a decrease in a depicted amount. A decrease is, however, more difficult to represent in paper pictorially than an increase. Within the Cognitive Load Theory framework, we expected that commonly used decrease problems would be harder and slower to solve than increase problems because of higher intrinsic cognitive load. We also hypothesised that combining the pictorial information with auditory information would reduce this load and, as a result, would lead to improved performance. We further expected that these effects would be most prominent in children who score below average on a general mathematics test. We conducted an experiment with sixty children attending the first grade of primary school, who were divided into a higher and lower mathematics-achieving group. As expected, children performed worse on the decrease problems compared to the increase problems. Also, the combination of pictorial and auditory information reduced the accuracy lag of the decrease problems compared to the increase problems. With response time this effect occurred only in the group of lower mathematics achieving children. These results are in line with the cognitive load theory framework, but we also offer an alternative explanation regarding attention.

AB - At the start of mathematics education children are often presented with addition and subtraction problems in the form of pictures. They are asked to solve the problems by filling in corresponding number sentences. One type of problem concerns the representation of an increase or a decrease in a depicted amount. A decrease is, however, more difficult to represent in paper pictorially than an increase. Within the Cognitive Load Theory framework, we expected that commonly used decrease problems would be harder and slower to solve than increase problems because of higher intrinsic cognitive load. We also hypothesised that combining the pictorial information with auditory information would reduce this load and, as a result, would lead to improved performance. We further expected that these effects would be most prominent in children who score below average on a general mathematics test. We conducted an experiment with sixty children attending the first grade of primary school, who were divided into a higher and lower mathematics-achieving group. As expected, children performed worse on the decrease problems compared to the increase problems. Also, the combination of pictorial and auditory information reduced the accuracy lag of the decrease problems compared to the increase problems. With response time this effect occurred only in the group of lower mathematics achieving children. These results are in line with the cognitive load theory framework, but we also offer an alternative explanation regarding attention.

KW - Arithmetic

KW - Cognitive load theory

KW - Mathematical word problems

KW - Modality effect

KW - Pictures

KW - Primary school

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85044925312&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85044925312&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s10649-017-9802-3

DO - 10.1007/s10649-017-9802-3

M3 - Article

VL - 98

SP - 39

EP - 55

JO - Educational Studies in Mathematics

JF - Educational Studies in Mathematics

SN - 0013-1954

IS - 1

ER -