Plasma phospholipid fatty acids and fish-oil consumption in relation to osteoporotic fracture risk in older adults: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Study

T.B. Harris, X.L. Song, I. Reinders, T.F. Lang, M.E. Garcia, K. Siggeirsdottir, S. Sigurdsson, V. Gudnason, G. Eiriksdottir, G. Sigurdsson, L. Steingrimsdottir, T. Aspelund, I.A. Brouwer, R.A. Murphy

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Background: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may play a role in fracture, but studies have been largely confined to estimates of dietary intake. Objective: We aimed to examine associations between fatty acids measured in late life and fish-oil consumption in early life, midlife, and late life with osteoporotic fracture risk. Design: Osteoporotic fractures were determined from medical records over 5-9 y of follow-up in men and women aged 66-96 y. Data were analyzed from 1438 participants including 898 participants who were randomly selected from the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Study, which is an observational study, and 540 participants with incident fracture. Plasma phospholipid fatty acids were assessed by using gas chromatography. Fish-oil consumption was assessed by using validated questionnaires as never (referent), less than daily, or daily. HRs and 95% CIs adjusted for age, education, height, weight, diabetes, physical activity, and medications were estimated by using Cox regression. Results: In men, the highest tertile of PUFAs, n-3 (v-3), and eicosapentaenoic acid were associated with decreased fracture risk [HRs (95% CIs): 0.60 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.89), 0.66 (0.45, 0.95), and 0.59 (0.41, 0.86), respectively]. In women, PUFAs tended to be inversely associated with fracture risk (P-trend = 0.06), but tertiles 2 and 3 were not independently associated with risk. Tertile 2 of n-6 and arachidonic acid was associated with fracture risk in women [HRs (95% CIs): 1.43 (1.10, 1.85) and 1.42 (1.09, 1.85), respectively]. Daily fish-oil consumption in late life was associated with lower fracture risk in men (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.91). Daily fish-oil consumption in midlife was associated with lower fracture risk in women (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.98). Conclusions: Greater PUFA concentrations may be associated with lower osteoporotic fracture risk in older adults, particularly in men. Critical time periods for n-3 fatty acid consumption may differ by sex.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)947-955
JournalThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume101
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

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