Polymorphisms in the interleukin-1 (IL1) gene have been suggested to influence transcription of IL1A (interleukin-1α) and IL1B (interleukin-1β) and thereby the pathophysiology of periodontitis. This case-control association study on 415 northern European Caucasian patients with aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and 874 healthy controls was conducted to examine 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes of the IL1 cluster for association with IL1A, IL1B, CKAP2L (cytoskeleton-associated protein 2-like), and IL1RN (IL-1 receptor antagonist). The results do not support an association between variants in the IL1 gene cluster and AgP. This case-control study had at least 95% power to detect genuine associations with variants carrying relative risks of at least 1.5 for heterozygous carriers and 2.25 for homozygous carriers. Previous reports of an association between IL1 promoter SNPs and periodontitis might reflect subpopulation effects and have to be interpreted with care.