Objectives: To assess the prevalence of pain-related temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) among Indonesian children and adolescents, and to investigate which risk indicators are associated with it.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1,800 questionnaires were distributed among pupils of schools in the greater Jakarta area. This was done for 2 samples: children with ages ranging from 7 to 12 years (parental report) and adolescents aged 13-18 years (self-report).
Results: The prevalence rates for pain-related TMDs in Indonesian children and adolescents were 23.4% (95% CI = 20-27) and 36.9% (95% CI = 33-41), respectively. Regression models revealed that psychological factors and the presence of bodily pain were strongly associated with pain-related TMDs in both children and adolescents, next to oral habits (in children), and sleep and awake bruxism (in adolescents). On the other hand, the socioeconomic status of parents was not associated with pain-related TMDs in either sample.
Conclusions: Pain-related TMDs are common among the young Indonesian population. These findings corroborate those from earlier studies of young populations, namely that bruxism and oral habits, bodily pain complaints, and psychological factors are risk indicators for pain-related TMDs.