Prevalence of Insomnia (Symptoms) in T2D and Association With Metabolic Parameters and Glycemic Control: Meta-Analysis

Anitra D.M. Koopman, Joline W. Beulens, Tine Dijkstra, Frans Pouwer, Marijke A. Bremmer, Annemieke Van Straten, Femke Rutters*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalReview articleAcademicpeer-review


Objective: We aimed to determine the prevalence of insomnia and insomnia symptoms and its association with metabolic parameters and glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a systematic review and meta-analysis. Data Sources: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed/Embase until March 2018. Study Selection: Included studies described prevalence of insomnia or insomnia symptoms and/or its association with metabolic parameters or glycemic control in adults with T2D. Data Extraction: Data extraction was performed independently by 2 reviewers, on a standardized, prepiloted form. An adaptation of Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. Data Synthesis: When possible, results were meta-analyzed using random-effects analysis and rated using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Results: A total of 11 329 titles/abstracts were screened and 224 were read full text in duplicate, of which 78 studies were included. The pooled prevalence of insomnia (symptoms) in people with T2D was 39% (95% confidence interval, 34-44) with I2 statistic of 100% (P < 0.00001), with a very low GRADE of evidence. Sensitivity analyses identified no clear sources of heterogeneity. Meta-analyses showed that in people with T2D, insomnia (symptoms) were associated with higher hemoglobin A1c levels (mean difference, 0.23% [0.1-0.4]) and higher fasting glucose levels (mean difference, 0.40 mmol/L [0.2-0.7]), with a low GRADE of evidence. The relative low methodological quality and high heterogeneity of the studies included in this meta-analysis complicate the interpretation of our results. Conclusions: The prevalence of insomnia (symptoms) is 39% (95% confidence interval, 34-44) in the T2D population and may be associated with deleterious glycemic control.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberdgz065
Pages (from-to)614–643
Number of pages30
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number3
Early online date11 Oct 2019
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2020


  • glucose
  • HbA1c
  • insomnia
  • prevalence
  • type 2 diabetes


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