Introduction: hyperglycemic emergencies (diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state) are the most common serious acute metabolic complications of diabetes which result in significant morbidity and mortality. There is paucity of data on hyperglycemic emergencies in Cameroon. The objective of this study was to investigate the precipitants and outcomes of patients admitted for hyperglycemic emergencies in the Buea Regional Hospital in the South West Region of Cameroon. Methods: in this retrospective study the medical records of patients admitted for hyperglycemic emergencies between 2013 and 2016 in the medical unit of the Buea Regional Hospital were reviewed. We extracted data on demographic characteristics, admission clinical characteristics, precipitants, and treatment outcomes. Logistic regression was used to determine predictors of mortality. Results: data were available for 60 patients (51.7% females) admitted for hyperglycemic emergencies. The mean age was 55.2±16.3 (range 18-86). Overall there were 51 (85%) cases of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state. Twenty six (43.3%) of the patients had hypertension. The most common precipitants of hyperglycemic emergencies were infections (41.7%), newly diagnosed diabetes (33.3%) and non-adherence to medications (33.3%). Mean admission blood glucose was 574mg/dl±70.0mg/dl. The median length of hospital stay was 6 days. Overall case fatality rate was 21.7%. Six (46.2%) deaths were related to infections. Predictors of mortality were a Glasgow coma score <13(p<0.001), a diastolic blood pressure <60 mmHg (p=0.034) and a heart rate >90(0.057) on admission. Conclusion: admission for hyperglycemic emergencies in this semi-urban hospital is associated with abnormally high case fatality. Infections, newly diagnosed diabetes and non-adherence to medications are the commonest precipitants of hyperglycemic emergencies. Public health measures to reduce morbidity and mortality from hyperglycemic crisis are urgently needed.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© Clovis Nkoke et al. Pan African Medical Journal (ISSN: 1937-8688).
- Diabetic ketoacidosis
- Hyperglycemic emergencies
- Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state