Chronic exposure to low-dose 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in marmoset monkeys was used to model the prodromal stage of Parkinson's disease (PD), and to investigate mechanisms underlying disease progression and recovery. Marmosets were subcutaneously injected with MPTP for a period of 12. weeks, 0.5. mg/kg once per week, and clinical signs of Parkinsonism, motor- and non-motor behaviors were recorded before, during and after exposure. In addition, postmortem immunohistochemistry and proteomics analysis were performed. MPTP-induced parkinsonian clinical symptoms increased in severity during exposure, and recovered after MPTP administration was ended. Postmortem analyses, after the recovery period, revealed no alteration of the number and sizes of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra. Also levels of TH in putamen and caudate nucleus were unaltered, no differences were observed in DA, serotonin or nor-adrenalin levels in the caudate nucleus, and proteomics analysis revealed no global changes in protein expression in these brain areas between treatment groups. Our findings indicate that parkinsonian symptoms can occur without detectable damage at the cellular or molecular level. Moreover, we show that parkinsonian symptoms may be reversible when diagnosed and treated early.
|Publication status||Published - 2016|