de Groot S, Dallmeijer AJ, Post MW, Angenot EL, van den Berg-Emons RJ, van der Woude LH. Prospective analysis of lipid profiles in persons with a spinal cord injury during and 1 year after inpatient rehabilitation. Objectives: To investigate the course of lipid profiles during and 1 year after inpatient rehabilitation of persons with spinal cord injury, and to determine which personal, lesion, and lifestyle characteristics influence the changes in lipid profiles over time and among subjects. Design: Multilevel regression analysis of measurement points during and after rehabilitation. Setting: Eight rehabilitation centers in The Netherlands. Participants: People with complete and incomplete paraplegia and tetraplegia (N=180). Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: Total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides (TG), and the TC/HDL ratio. Results: We found a significant decrease in TG and TC/HDL during inpatient rehabilitation and a significant increase in HDL during and after inpatient rehabilitation. TC and LDL, however, showed unfavorable increases after clinical discharge. The changes in HDL and LDL over time differed between lesion groups. An increase in the body mass index (BMI) led to an unfavorable change in all lipid profiles. Older participants showed higher TC, LDL, and HDL concentrations. Women and participants who consumed some alcohol, or who were more active 1 year after discharge, had more favorable HDL levels. Conclusions: Lipid profiles improved during inpatient rehabilitation but deteriorated somewhat after clinical discharge. Controlling one's BMI seems important in diminishing the risk for unfavorable lipid profiles. © 2008 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.