Mice orally infected with enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 were used to evaluate the activity of bovine lactoferrin (bLF) and the synthetic peptide LFchimera. Groups of BALB/c mice inoculated intragastrically with EHEC O157:H7 showed chronic intestinal infection with the pathogen that persisted over 6 days and resulted in a high mortality rate (90%). LFchimera and kanamycin significantly decreased (40%) this mortality rate (P = 0.028). On the other hand, although mice administered with bLF showed an important reduction in mortality (50%), this was not statistically significant (P = 0.070). In infected and untreated mice, severe tubular necrosis, glomerular lesions, and moderate intratubular hyaline casts were found in the kidney. However, in the bLF and LFchimera groups we found a reduction in the damage and a substantial decrease in the bacterial concentration excreted in feces 48 h after infection. Furthermore, sepsis caused by EHEC was reduced by the treatments, evidenced by the fact that bacteria were not detected in the kidney or liver 72 h after infection. The results suggest the bLF and LFchimera could have potential as therapeutics in EHEC infections.