Protein export into and across the atypical diderm cell envelope of mycobacteria

Vincent J.C. van Winden, Edith N.G. Houben, Miriam Braunstein

Research output: Chapter in Book / Report / Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review


Mycobacteria are Actinobacteria, which is a phylum of high-GC Gram-positive bacteria. Among the wide range of Mycobacterium spp. are several important pathogens. Most notable of these is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB). Although the number of TB cases and deaths show a declining trend in the past decade, the World Health Organization recently warned that “current actions and investments in research are falling far short” ( Over 1.3 million deaths and up to 10.0 million new infections were attributed to M. tuberculosis in 2017, which makes M. tuberculosis the most deadly infectious agent in the world, surpassing HIV and the malaria parasite (1). One issue facing efforts to control TB is that the live attenuated bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine strain is not able to provide lifelong protection against M. tuberculosis (2). Another problem is the increased incidence of infections caused by multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains. Consequently, major research efforts focus on understanding M. tuberculosis pathogenesis and physiology to advance the development of new anti-TB vaccines and antibiotics.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationGram-Positive Pathogens
EditorsVincent A. Fischetti, Richard P. Novick, Joseph J. Ferretti, Daniel A. Portnoy, Miriam Braunstein, Julian I. Rood
Number of pages25
ISBN (Electronic)9781683670452
ISBN (Print)9781683670124
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 American Society for Microbiology.


  • Diderm cell envelope
  • Mycobacterial esx system
  • Mycobacterial sec pathway
  • Mycobacterial T7S pathway
  • SecA2 substrate


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