Self-efficacy beliefs are an important psychosocial determinant of pain behavior and predict the outcome of pain management programs. Participants in these programs are challenged to live a life as normal as possible despite the pain. In view of the continuous presence of pain, self-efficacy measurement should take this into account. The Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ) asks participants to take the pain into account when rating their self-efficacy beliefs. In the present study, this questionnaire is examined on its psychometric qualities. The study also examines self-efficacy as an independent predictor of outcome measures after controlling for pain intensity. 278 chronic pain patients participate in this study, divided into two samples. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a 1-factor solution. Internal consistency was excellent, and test-retest reliability was adequate. Regression analysis showed that pain self-efficacy was an independent predictor of disability and quality of life after controlling for pain intensity. Furthermore, the PSEQ discriminated between workers and nonworkers, and between patients who used medication and those who did not. © 2011 Hogrefe Publishing.