Push-off forces in elite short-track speed skating

Eline van der Kruk*, Marco M. Reijne, Bjorn de Laat, Dirk Jan (H) E.J. Veeger

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


This study performed an analysis of the push-off forces of elite-short-track speed skaters using a new designed instrumented short-track speed skate with the aim to improve short-track skating performance. Four different skating strokes were distinguished for short-track speed skaters at speed. The strokes differed in stroke time, force level in both normal and lateral directions, and the centre of pressure (COP) on the blade. Within the homogeneous group of male elite speed skaters (N = 6), diversity of execution of the force patterns in the four phases of skating was evident, while skating at the same velocities. The male participants (N = 6) with a better personal record (PR) kept the COP more to the rear of their blades while hanging into the curve (r = 0.82, p < 0.05), leaving the curve (r = 0.86, p < 0.05), and entering the straight (r = 0.76, p < 0.10). Furthermore, the male skaters with a better PR showed a trend of a lower lateral peak force while entering the curve (r = 0.74, p < 0.10). Females showed a trend towards applying higher body weight normalised lateral forces than the males, while skating at imposed lower velocities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)527-538
Number of pages12
JournalSports Biomechanics
Issue number5
Early online date30 May 2018
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2019


This work was supported by NWO-STW [grant number 12870]. This work was supported by NWO-STW [grant number 12870]. The authors gratefully acknowledge ir. Jorine Koopman of the Hague University and the students of the Hague University and Delft University of Technology that contributed to the design of the instrumented skate. We acknowledge Sjinkie Knegt for the manual fabrication of the custom cups. We thank dr. ir. J.C.F. de Winter for his advice on statistics. Furthermore, we want to acknowledge the national coach Jeroen Otter and assistant coach Kip Carpenter for their endless ideas and curiosity. And finally, the national Dutch speed skating selection for participating in this research.

FundersFunder number
Hague University
Technische Universiteit Delft


    • Engineering
    • force measurement
    • performance
    • techniques


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