Various techniques exist for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) determination in environmental samples, but an adequate risk assessment of PAHs should include aspects such as bioavailability of the contaminant and biotransformation capacity of the species under investigation. In this study, we provided an analysis of the kinetics of pyrene in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. Isopods were exposed to pyrene in their food (10 μg/g d/w) for 7 days followed by an elimination period of 7 days. The animals were dissected, and the hepatopancreases were analyzed for pyrene biotransformation products; nonmetabolised pyrene in the gut was also monitored. Concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene in the hepatopancreas were very low. Almost all of the pyrene was found as three conjugates: pyrene-1-glucoside, pyrene-1-sulfate, and a third unknown 1-hydroxypyrene conjugate. Concentrations of the metabolites were extremely variable between individuals because of variable feeding activity. An apparent steady state was reached already after 24 hours of exposure, whereas elimination was complete 48 hours after ending the exposure. This rapid response to changes in the exposure concentration shows that terrestrial isopods have a high biotransformation capacity for PAHs. The data show that concentrations of parent PAHs will not provide a good indication of exposure in rapidly metabolizing invertebrates such as isopods; instead, pyrene metabolites may be considered a promising biomarker for bioavailability of PAH contamination in the field.
|Journal||Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology|
|Publication status||Published - 2004|