The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the quality of arithmetic education for children with cerebral palsy. The use of individual educational plans, amount of arithmetic instruction time, arithmetic instructional grouping, and type of arithmetic teaching method were explored in three groups: children with cerebral palsy (CP) in special (CP-special; n=41) and mainstream schools (CP-mainstream; n=16) and a control group in mainstream schools (n=16). The majority of individual educational plans did not include well-formulated arithmetic goals and many were not based on optimal assessment. Special schools scheduled much less arithmetic instruction time. Many CP-mainstream children received individualized instruction, which may help to explain why their arithmetic performance did not differ from controls. Remedial arithmetic teaching methods used in special schools did not seem to be optimal, but more research is required. Suggestions to improve arithmetic education to children with CP were discussed. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.