In developed countries noise annoyance is an important source of environmental concern. Research on noise annoyance caused by railroad traffic is relatively underdeveloped. Here, a causal chain model is presented in which railroad traffic density, noise emission, noise immission and noise annoyance are causally related. Noise level, habituation and railroad usage are determinant factors. Noise annoyance causes social and economic costs, such as property value depreciation. Policy measures, aimed at reducing social and economic costs, are incorporated in various stages of the causal model. These measures can be subdivided into noise regulation and direct prevention measures. Stricter threshold values lead to higher total costs, but may lower social costs per capita. Economic feasibility of policy measures is usually analyzed by means of a cost-benefit case study. Methods of analysis used are diverse and ad hoc. Therefore, results of different case studies are not easily compared in terms of research synthesis. © 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd.
|Number of pages
|Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment
|Published - 2003