Rapid recovery of life at ground zero of the end-Cretaceous mass extinction

Christopher M. Lowery, Timothy J. Bralower, Jeremy D. Owens, Francisco J. Rodríguez-Tovar, Heather Jones, Jan Smit, Michael T. Whalen, Phillipe Claeys, Kenneth Farley, Sean P.S. Gulick, Joanna V. Morgan, Sophie Green, Elise Chenot, Gail L. Christeson, Charles S. Cockell, Marco J.L. Coolen, Ludovic Ferrière, Catalina Gebhardt, Kazuhisa Goto, David A. Kring & 18 others Johanna Lofi, Rubén Ocampo-Torres, Ligia Perez-Cruz, Annemarie E. Pickersgill, Michael H. Poelchau, Auriol S.P. Rae, Cornelia Rasmussen, Mario Rebolledo-Vieyra, Ulrich Riller, Honami Sato, Sonia M. Tikoo, Naotaka Tomioka, Jaime Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Johan Vellekoop, Axel Wittmann, Long Xiao, Kosei E. Yamaguchi, William Zylberman

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

The Cretaceous/Palaeogene mass extinction eradicated 76% of species on Earth 1,2. It was caused by the impact of an asteroid 3,4 on the Yucatán carbonate platform in the southern Gulf of Mexico 66 million years ago 5, forming the Chicxulub impact crater 6,7. After the mass extinction, the recovery of the global marine ecosystem - measured as primary productivity - was geographically heterogeneous 8 ; export production in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic-western Tethys was slower than in most other regions 8-11, taking 300 thousand years (kyr) to return to levels similar to those of the Late Cretaceous period. Delayed recovery of marine productivity closer to the crater implies an impact-related environmental control, such as toxic metal poisoning 12, on recovery times. If no such geographic pattern exists, the best explanation for the observed heterogeneity is a combination of ecological factors - trophic interactions 13, species incumbency and competitive exclusion by opportunists 14 - and 'chance' 8,15,16. The question of whether the post-impact recovery of marine productivity was delayed closer to the crater has a bearing on the predictability of future patterns of recovery in anthropogenically perturbed ecosystems. If there is a relationship between the distance from the impact and the recovery of marine productivity, we would expect recovery rates to be slowest in the crater itself. Here we present a record of foraminifera, calcareous nannoplankton, trace fossils and elemental abundance data from within the Chicxulub crater, dated to approximately the first 200 kyr of the Palaeocene. We show that life reappeared in the basin just years after the impact and a high-productivity ecosystem was established within 30 kyr, which indicates that proximity to the impact did not delay recovery and that there was therefore no impact-related environmental control on recovery. Ecological processes probably controlled the recovery of productivity after the Cretaceous/Palaeogene mass extinction and are therefore likely to be important for the response of the ocean ecosystem to other rapid extinction events.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)288-291
Number of pages4
JournalNature
Volume558
Issue number7709
Early online date30 May 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 14 Jun 2018

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mass extinction
Cretaceous
crater
productivity
Paleogene
ecosystem
trophic interaction
nanoplankton
trace fossil
poisoning
carbonate platform
Tethys
marine ecosystem
asteroid
Paleocene
foraminifera
extinction

Cite this

Lowery, C. M., Bralower, T. J., Owens, J. D., Rodríguez-Tovar, F. J., Jones, H., Smit, J., ... Zylberman, W. (2018). Rapid recovery of life at ground zero of the end-Cretaceous mass extinction. Nature, 558(7709), 288-291. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0163-6
Lowery, Christopher M. ; Bralower, Timothy J. ; Owens, Jeremy D. ; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J. ; Jones, Heather ; Smit, Jan ; Whalen, Michael T. ; Claeys, Phillipe ; Farley, Kenneth ; Gulick, Sean P.S. ; Morgan, Joanna V. ; Green, Sophie ; Chenot, Elise ; Christeson, Gail L. ; Cockell, Charles S. ; Coolen, Marco J.L. ; Ferrière, Ludovic ; Gebhardt, Catalina ; Goto, Kazuhisa ; Kring, David A. ; Lofi, Johanna ; Ocampo-Torres, Rubén ; Perez-Cruz, Ligia ; Pickersgill, Annemarie E. ; Poelchau, Michael H. ; Rae, Auriol S.P. ; Rasmussen, Cornelia ; Rebolledo-Vieyra, Mario ; Riller, Ulrich ; Sato, Honami ; Tikoo, Sonia M. ; Tomioka, Naotaka ; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime ; Vellekoop, Johan ; Wittmann, Axel ; Xiao, Long ; Yamaguchi, Kosei E. ; Zylberman, William. / Rapid recovery of life at ground zero of the end-Cretaceous mass extinction. In: Nature. 2018 ; Vol. 558, No. 7709. pp. 288-291.
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abstract = "The Cretaceous/Palaeogene mass extinction eradicated 76{\%} of species on Earth 1,2. It was caused by the impact of an asteroid 3,4 on the Yucat{\'a}n carbonate platform in the southern Gulf of Mexico 66 million years ago 5, forming the Chicxulub impact crater 6,7. After the mass extinction, the recovery of the global marine ecosystem - measured as primary productivity - was geographically heterogeneous 8 ; export production in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic-western Tethys was slower than in most other regions 8-11, taking 300 thousand years (kyr) to return to levels similar to those of the Late Cretaceous period. Delayed recovery of marine productivity closer to the crater implies an impact-related environmental control, such as toxic metal poisoning 12, on recovery times. If no such geographic pattern exists, the best explanation for the observed heterogeneity is a combination of ecological factors - trophic interactions 13, species incumbency and competitive exclusion by opportunists 14 - and 'chance' 8,15,16. The question of whether the post-impact recovery of marine productivity was delayed closer to the crater has a bearing on the predictability of future patterns of recovery in anthropogenically perturbed ecosystems. If there is a relationship between the distance from the impact and the recovery of marine productivity, we would expect recovery rates to be slowest in the crater itself. Here we present a record of foraminifera, calcareous nannoplankton, trace fossils and elemental abundance data from within the Chicxulub crater, dated to approximately the first 200 kyr of the Palaeocene. We show that life reappeared in the basin just years after the impact and a high-productivity ecosystem was established within 30 kyr, which indicates that proximity to the impact did not delay recovery and that there was therefore no impact-related environmental control on recovery. Ecological processes probably controlled the recovery of productivity after the Cretaceous/Palaeogene mass extinction and are therefore likely to be important for the response of the ocean ecosystem to other rapid extinction events.",
author = "Lowery, {Christopher M.} and Bralower, {Timothy J.} and Owens, {Jeremy D.} and Rodr{\'i}guez-Tovar, {Francisco J.} and Heather Jones and Jan Smit and Whalen, {Michael T.} and Phillipe Claeys and Kenneth Farley and Gulick, {Sean P.S.} and Morgan, {Joanna V.} and Sophie Green and Elise Chenot and Christeson, {Gail L.} and Cockell, {Charles S.} and Coolen, {Marco J.L.} and Ludovic Ferri{\`e}re and Catalina Gebhardt and Kazuhisa Goto and Kring, {David A.} and Johanna Lofi and Rub{\'e}n Ocampo-Torres and Ligia Perez-Cruz and Pickersgill, {Annemarie E.} and Poelchau, {Michael H.} and Rae, {Auriol S.P.} and Cornelia Rasmussen and Mario Rebolledo-Vieyra and Ulrich Riller and Honami Sato and Tikoo, {Sonia M.} and Naotaka Tomioka and Jaime Urrutia-Fucugauchi and Johan Vellekoop and Axel Wittmann and Long Xiao and Yamaguchi, {Kosei E.} and William Zylberman",
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Lowery, CM, Bralower, TJ, Owens, JD, Rodríguez-Tovar, FJ, Jones, H, Smit, J, Whalen, MT, Claeys, P, Farley, K, Gulick, SPS, Morgan, JV, Green, S, Chenot, E, Christeson, GL, Cockell, CS, Coolen, MJL, Ferrière, L, Gebhardt, C, Goto, K, Kring, DA, Lofi, J, Ocampo-Torres, R, Perez-Cruz, L, Pickersgill, AE, Poelchau, MH, Rae, ASP, Rasmussen, C, Rebolledo-Vieyra, M, Riller, U, Sato, H, Tikoo, SM, Tomioka, N, Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J, Vellekoop, J, Wittmann, A, Xiao, L, Yamaguchi, KE & Zylberman, W 2018, 'Rapid recovery of life at ground zero of the end-Cretaceous mass extinction' Nature, vol. 558, no. 7709, pp. 288-291. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0163-6

Rapid recovery of life at ground zero of the end-Cretaceous mass extinction. / Lowery, Christopher M.; Bralower, Timothy J.; Owens, Jeremy D.; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J.; Jones, Heather; Smit, Jan; Whalen, Michael T.; Claeys, Phillipe; Farley, Kenneth; Gulick, Sean P.S.; Morgan, Joanna V.; Green, Sophie; Chenot, Elise; Christeson, Gail L.; Cockell, Charles S.; Coolen, Marco J.L.; Ferrière, Ludovic; Gebhardt, Catalina; Goto, Kazuhisa; Kring, David A.; Lofi, Johanna; Ocampo-Torres, Rubén; Perez-Cruz, Ligia; Pickersgill, Annemarie E.; Poelchau, Michael H.; Rae, Auriol S.P.; Rasmussen, Cornelia; Rebolledo-Vieyra, Mario; Riller, Ulrich; Sato, Honami; Tikoo, Sonia M.; Tomioka, Naotaka; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Vellekoop, Johan; Wittmann, Axel; Xiao, Long; Yamaguchi, Kosei E.; Zylberman, William.

In: Nature, Vol. 558, No. 7709, 14.06.2018, p. 288-291.

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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T1 - Rapid recovery of life at ground zero of the end-Cretaceous mass extinction

AU - Lowery, Christopher M.

AU - Bralower, Timothy J.

AU - Owens, Jeremy D.

AU - Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J.

AU - Jones, Heather

AU - Smit, Jan

AU - Whalen, Michael T.

AU - Claeys, Phillipe

AU - Farley, Kenneth

AU - Gulick, Sean P.S.

AU - Morgan, Joanna V.

AU - Green, Sophie

AU - Chenot, Elise

AU - Christeson, Gail L.

AU - Cockell, Charles S.

AU - Coolen, Marco J.L.

AU - Ferrière, Ludovic

AU - Gebhardt, Catalina

AU - Goto, Kazuhisa

AU - Kring, David A.

AU - Lofi, Johanna

AU - Ocampo-Torres, Rubén

AU - Perez-Cruz, Ligia

AU - Pickersgill, Annemarie E.

AU - Poelchau, Michael H.

AU - Rae, Auriol S.P.

AU - Rasmussen, Cornelia

AU - Rebolledo-Vieyra, Mario

AU - Riller, Ulrich

AU - Sato, Honami

AU - Tikoo, Sonia M.

AU - Tomioka, Naotaka

AU - Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

AU - Vellekoop, Johan

AU - Wittmann, Axel

AU - Xiao, Long

AU - Yamaguchi, Kosei E.

AU - Zylberman, William

PY - 2018/6/14

Y1 - 2018/6/14

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Lowery CM, Bralower TJ, Owens JD, Rodríguez-Tovar FJ, Jones H, Smit J et al. Rapid recovery of life at ground zero of the end-Cretaceous mass extinction. Nature. 2018 Jun 14;558(7709):288-291. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0163-6