To achieve re-osseointegration on implant surfaces exposed to peri-implant infections, treatment should re-establish biocompatibility. The aim of this study was to test whether air powder abrasive treatment (APA) using osteoconductive powders can, in addition to cleaning, increase the biocompatibility of the contaminated implant surface. Ninety-six in vitro Ca-precipitated, organic film layer–coated sandblasted and acid-etched titanium discs were treated by APA using erythritol, hydroxylapatite (HA), and biocalcium phosphate (BioCaP) powders (n ¼ 16 per group). Six treatment modalities were created (HA or erythritol cleaning with/without BioCaP coating). MC3T3-E1cells were seeded on discs, and cell attachment, viability, proliferation, and differentiation were evaluated. Pristine discs were used as control (control 1). Contaminated and nontreated discs were used as control (control 2). The cells were stretched and attached in all test groups. The cell viability and proliferation (DNA amount) in all test groups were significantly higher than in the pristine and contaminated disc groups. There was no significant difference between the test groups. The differentiation (alkaline phosphatase activity) of the cells on treated discs was significantly higher than on the contaminated discs but lower than in the pristine group. The cell viability in control 2 was significantly lower than the control 1. The APA with osteoconductive powder on contaminated titanium surfaces promoted the cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation of the MC3T3-E1 cells. The biocompatibility of the surface was higher than that of the contaminated discs. The tested aspects of cell response, with the exception of differentiation, reached to the level of the pristine surface. The in vitro results showed that APA with osteoconductive powders could be a promising method for implant surface treatment.