Reconstitution of the interplay between cytochrome P450 and human glutathione S-transferases in clozapine metabolism in yeast.

G. Vredenburg, K.P. Vassell, J.N.M. Commandeur, N.P.E. Vermeulen, J.C. Vos

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Clozapine, an often-prescribed antipsychotic drug, is implicated in severe adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Formation of reactive intermediates by cytochrome P450s (CYPs) has been proposed as a possible explanation for these ADRs. Moreover, a protective role for human glutathione S-transferases (hGSTs) was recently shown using purified enzymes. We investigated the interplay between CYP bioactivation and GST detoxification in a reconstituted cellular context using recombinant yeast expressing a bacterial CYP BM3 mutant (M11), mimicking the drug-metabolizing potential of human CYPs, combined with hGSTA1-1, M1-1 or P1-1. Clozapine and the N-desmethylclozapine metabolite caused comparable growth inhibition and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, whereas the clozapine-N-oxide metabolite was clearly less toxic. Clozapine metabolism by BM3 M11 and the hGSTs in yeast was confirmed by identification of stable clozapine metabolites and hGST isoform-specific glutathione-conjugates. Oxidative metabolism of clozapine by BM3 M11 increased ROS formation and growth inhibition. Co-expression of hGSTP1-1 protected yeast from BM3 M11 induced growth inhibition in presence of clozapine, whereas similar expression levels of hGSTA1-1 and hGSTM1-1 did not. ROS formation was not lowered by hGSTP1-1 co-expression and was unrelated to mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) activity. We present a novel cellular model to study the effect of CYP and GST interplay in drug toxicity. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)247-256
JournalToxicology Letters
Volume222
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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