Objective: Examine time to recurrence of major depressive disorder (MDD) across different treatment settings and assess predictors of time to recurrence of MDD. Methods: Data were from 375 subjects with a MDD diagnosis from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). The study sample was restricted to subjects with a remission of at least three months. These subjects were followed until recurrence or the end of the two year follow-up. DSM-IV based diagnostic interviews and Life Chart Interviews were used to assess time to recurrence of MDD across treatment settings. Predictors of time to recurrence were determined using Cox's proportional hazards analyses. Results: Although trends indicated a slightly higher rate of and shorter time to recurrence in specialized mental health care, no significant difference in recurrence rate (26.8% versus 33.5%, p=0.23) or in time to recurrence (controlled for covariates) of MDD was found between respondents in specialized mental health care and respondents treated in primary care (average 6.6 versus 5.5 months, p=0.09). In multivariable analyses, a family history of MDD and previous major depressive episodes were associated with a shorter time to recurrence. Predictors did not differ across treatment settings. Limitations: The study sample may not be representative of the entire population treated for MDD in specialized mental health care. Conclusions: Health care professionals in both settings should be aware of the same risk factors since the recurrence risk and its predictors appeared to be similar across settings. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.