Background: Substantial attention and resources are aimed at the reintegration of child soldiers, yet rigorous evaluations are rare. Methods. This tracer study was conducted among former child soldiers (N=452) and never-recruited peers (N=191) who participated in an economic support program in Burundi. Socio-economic outcome indicators were measured retrospectively for the period before receiving support (T1; 2005-06); immediately afterwards (T2; 2006-07); and at present (T3; 2010). Participants also rated present functional impairment and mental health indicators. Results: Participants reported improvement on all indicators, especially economic opportunity and social integration. At present no difference existed between both groups on any of the outcome indicators. Socio-economic functioning was negatively related with depression- and, health complaints and positively with intervention satisfaction. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates promising reintegration trajectories of former child soldiers after participating in a support program. © 2012 Jordans et al.; licensee BioMed Cent ral Ltd.